Hosts in Great Britain & Ireland : Ajuga, Ballota, Galeopsis, Glechoma, Lamiastrum, Lamium, Marrubium, Prunella, Stachys, Teucrium and Verbena.
Mine : In the larva's first instar, a narrow corridor is formed. The mine then develops into a conspicuous white blotch on the upper surface of the leaf. No feeding lines are present. The frass in the gallery section liquifies to form a broad green band. There are often small black granules of frass along the sides of the initial corridor.
In rare cases, the mine shows primary feeding lines and the frass in the corridor section does not liquify;
Pupation : Outside of the mine.
Puparium : Orange.
Phenology : Bivoltine. Mines can be found between June and November.